Timeline

Timelines are cool because they provide context for historical events.

Science and Technology Timeline (with a few other things thrown in)
Note: most of this came from Lucie-Smith, E., (1997). Visual Arts in the Twentieth Century

1880-1

  • France annexes Tahiti
  • Nationalist uprising in Egypt
  • Death of British Statesman Benjamin Disraeli
  • Assignation of Tsar Alexander II
  • First practical electric lights invented
  • Canned foodstuffs first appear on sale
  • Electric street lights installed in New York
  • Opening of the Natural History Museum, South Kensington, London
  • Auguste Rodin begins work on The Gates of Hell (-1920)
  • Auguste Renoir, The Boating Party

1882-3

  • Triple Alliance of Italy, Austria and Germany
  • British troops occupy Cairo
  • France gains control of Tunis
  • Thomas Edison designs first hydroelectric plant
  • First synthetic fiber produced
  • Paul Gauguin abandons his career as a stockbroker in order to paint
  • Claude Monet settles at Giverney, where he builds his lily pond
  • Brooklyn Bridge, New York opened
  • First skyscraper (10 stories), Chicago – Le Baron Jenny, Home Insurance Building
  • Antonio Gaudi, Sagrada Familia church, Barcelona (-1926)

1884-5

  • German troops occupy South West Africa (now Namibia)
  • Indian National Congress founded
  • Mark Twain publishes Huckleberry Finn
  • First practical steam turbine engine
  • Design of the machine gun perfected
  • First single-cylinder automobile engine invented by Daimler
  • Salon des Independents founded in Paris
  • Georges Seurat, La Grande Jatte (-1886)
  • August Rodin, Burghers of Calais (-1895)

1886-7

  • Gold discovered in South Africa
  • Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria
  • French chemist Henri Moissan produces fluorine
  • Celluloid camera film invented
  • Auguste Rodin, The Kiss
  • Gustave Eiffel, Eiffel Tower, Paris (-1889)
  • Work completed on the Statue of Liberty, designed by Frederic Auguste Bartoldi over an armature created by Gustave Eiffel

1888-9

  • “Jack the Ripper” murders six women in London
  • North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Washington become US states; Oklahoma is opened to non-Native American settlement
  • Birthd of Adolf Hitler, Nazi dictator
  • George Eastman perfects “Kodak” box cameras
  • Pneumatic tires invented by Dunlop
  • Paul Gauguin, The Vision After the Sermon
  • Vincent Van Gogh goes to Arles and produces Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear
  • McKim, Mead, and White begin work on the Boston Public Library (-1892)

1890-1

  • Massacre of Native American Sioux at Wounded Knee, South Dakota
  • Bismark resigns as chancellor of Germany
  • Daughters of the American Revolution founded in Washington DC
  • United States becomes the world’s leading industrial power
  • Beginning of wireless telegraphy
  • Thomas Edison unveils his “kinetograph” (the first cine camera)
  • Vincent Van Gogh commits suicide
  • Paul Cezanne, The Card Players (-1895)
  • Paul Gauguin leaves for Tahiti
  • Death of Georges Seurat
  • Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec produces his first music hall posters

1892-3

  • World exhibition in Chicago
  • Iron and Steel workers strike in the United States
  • Franco-Russian alliance
  • First cans of pieapples
  • Viscose invented. Beginning of manufacture of rayon
  • First automatic telephone switchboard
  • Edvard Munch exhibition creates scandal in Berlin
  • Georges Seurat, The Bathers, Asnieres
  • Edvard Munch, The Scream
  • Claude Monet begins his series of paintings of Rouen Cathedral

1894-5

  • Uganda becomes a British protectorate
  • The Alfred Dreyfus affair reveals widespread corruption and anti-semitism in the French military establishment
  • Cuban war of independence against Spain
  • Auguste Lumière invents the cinematograph, enabling film projection of moving images
  • Wilhelm Röntgen discovers X-rays
  • Guglielmo Marconi invents radio telegraphy
  • Paul Cezanne, Large Bathers
  • Art Nouveau style predominates
  • First major exhibition of Paul Cezanne’s work, organized by Ambroise Vollard

1896-7

  • Indian troops defeated in Ethiopia
  • France annexes Madagascar
  • First modern Olympics held in Athens
  • Beginning of Klondike Gold Rush, Bonanza Creek, Canada
  • Severe famine in India
  • Malaria bacillus discovered
  • William Ramsey discovers helium
  • Magnetic detection of electrical waves by Ernest Rutherford
  • Die Jugend and Simplicissimus, two important German art magazines, appear in Munich
  • Vienna Secession formed
  • Auguste Rodin, plaster maquette for Balzac (commissioned 1891, refused 1898)

1898-9

  • United States declares war on Spain over Cuba
  • Spain forced to cede Puerto Rico, Guam, and philippines to United States
  • Outbreak of war between Britain and Boer settlers in South Africa
  • Dysentery bacillus discovered
  • Radium discovered by Marie and Pierre Curie
  • First magnetic sound recording
  • Ferdinand von Zeppelin produces his airship
  • Secession movement founded in Berlin
  • Charles Rennie Macintosh completes Glasgow School of Art
  • Hector Guimard, Art Nouveau entrances to Metro stations, Paris (-1904)

1900

  • Boxer Rising in China against the foreign population
  • Creation of the Commonwealth of Austrailia
  • First Zeppelin flight
  • Human speech first transmitted by radio wave
  • Sigmund Freud publishes The Interpretation of Dreams
  • Paris holds World’s Fair
  • Claude Monet exhibits first Waterlilies paintings

1901

  • Cuba becomes US protectorate
  • Death of Queen Victoria, accession of Edward VII
  • Theodore Roosevelt elected US president
  • Guglielmo Marconi sends first telegraphic radio message across Atlantic
  • First prototype motorcycles
  • First exhibition of Impressionist paintings in Russia

1902

  • Boer War ends
  • Death of Emile Zola
  • Aswan Dam inaugurated
  • Major retrospective of Toulouse-Lautrec, Brussels
  • Daniel Hudson Burnham, Flatiron Building, New York

1903

  • British troops complete conquest of Nigeria
  • First motorized taxis in London
  • First crossing coast-to-coast by automobile (65 days)
  • Wilbur and Orville Wright make first aeroplane flight
  • The Great Train Robbery, first narrative cinematic film and the longest to date (12mins)
  • Marie Curie and Henri Becquerel win the Nobel Prize for their research into radium
  • Death of Paul Gauguin in Tahiti
  • Deaths of James McNeill Whistler and Camille Pissarro
  • August Peret completes the first concrete apartment building, Paris

1904

  • Outbreak of Russo-Japanese War
  • France and England reach Entente Cordiale
  • Conference of the white slave trade held in Paris
  • First practical photoelectric cell
  • First ultraviolet lamps
  • First telegraphic transmission of photographs
  • Silicones discovered
  • Work begins on Panama Canal
  • Freud publishes The Psychopathology of Everyday Life
  • Henri Matisse, first solo show
  • Paul Cezanne show triumphs at the Salon d’Automne
  • Pablo Picasso settles into the Bateau Lavoir in Montmartre, Paris

1905

  • Russo-Japanes War ends in Japanese victory. Demonstration and general strike throughout Russia
  • Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta are formed
  • Albert Einstein begins work on his Theory of Relativity
  • Fauves show as a group at Salon d’Automne, Paris
  • Die Brucke founded – holds first group exhibition in Dresden

1906

  • US troops occupy Cuba
  • Death of playwright Henrik Ibsen
  • Earthquake in San Francisco, killing 700
  • First radio program with voices and music broadcast in United States
  • Death of Paul cezanne
  • Edouard Manet’s Dejeuner sur l’Herbe (rejected by the Paris Salon of 1863) goes on display at the Louvre
  • Auguste Rodin’s The Thinker installed outside the Pantheon, Paris
  • Discovery of African art
  • McKim, Mead, and White, Pennsylvania Station, New York (-1919)

1907

  • Oklahoma becomes 46th state
  • Invention of slow-motion film by Auguste Musger
  • Louis Lumière invents color photography
  • Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
  • Henri Rousseau, the Snake Charmer

1908

  • Austria occupies Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Foundation of Tel Aviv
  • Invention of Bakelite (first modern plastic)
  • Henry Ford produces first Model-T car
  • London witnesses Suffragette demonstrations over right of women to vote
  • The term “cubism” coined by critic Louis Vauxcelles, reviewing a show of Braque landscapes
  • Exhibition of the Eight (the Ashcan school) at the Macbeth Galleries, New york

1909

  • Paul Ehrlich prepares Salvarsan for cure of syphilis
  • English aviator Henri Farman completes first 100-mile flight
  • Bleriot completes first flight across English Channel
  • Expedition led by Robert E. Peary reaches North Pole
  • Publication of “Foundation and First Manifesto of Futurism” on front page of Le Figaro, 20 february
  • Piet Mondrian, The Red Tree

1910

  • Japan annexes Korea
  • China abolishes slavery
  • Union of south Africa established
  • Death of Edward VII, succession of George V
  • First crystal radio set transmission
  • Roger Fry coins the term “Postimpressionist”
  • Vassily Kandinsky paints first abstract watercolors
  • Death of Henri Rousseau
  • Henri Matisse, Dance and Music
  • Robert Delaunay, The Eiffel Tower
  • Pablo Picasso, Portrait of Ambroise Vollard

1911

  • First practical electric self-starter for automobiles invented
  • Ernest Rutherford propounds his theory of atomic structure
  • Expedition led by Roald Amundsen reaches South Pole
  • Revolution in Central China, Chinese Republic proclaimed
  • Mona Lisa stolen from the Louvre
  • Vassily Kandinsky publishes About the Spiritual in Art

1912

  • Kasimir Funk coins the word “vitamin”
  • Cellophane first manufactured
  • Titanic sinks on maiden voyage
  • Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque produce first collages
  • Egon Schiele briefly imprisoned on charges of producing pornography

1913

  • First domestic refrigerator in Chicago
  • Henry Ford introduces assembly line method of production
  • First film roles for Charlie Chaplin
  • Marcel Duchamp, Nude Descending a Staircase, and the first ready-mades
  • Armory Show in New York, introducing America to modern art

1914

  • First use of radium to treat cancer
  • Panama Canal is opened
  • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife in Sarajevo
  • World War I begins
  • First successful heart surgery (performed on a dog)
  • James Joyce publishes Dubliners

1915

  • German submarine torpedoes US liner Lusitania
  • Einstein publishes General Theory of Relativity
  • Ford Motor Company produces one millionth car
  • First Trans-Continental telephone call, New York to San Francisco
  • Kasimir Malevich publishes the Suprematist Manifesto

1916

  • Battle of Verdun
  • Death of Henry James
  • Franz Kafka publishes Metamorphosis
  • Margaret Sanger establishes the first birth-control clinic
  • First British tanks fight in the Battle of the Somme
  • Dada created at the Cabaret Voltaire, Zurich
  • Umberto Boccioni killed during military training
  • Franz Marc killed at Verdun

1917

  • First recording of a jazz concert (United States)
  • 100-inch reflecting telescope used at Mount Wilson
  • United States declares war on Germany
  • October Revolution in Russia brings Bolsheviks to power
  • Death of Auguste Rodin and Edgar Degas
  • Mondrian creates Neoplasticism

1918

  • World War I ends with the defeat of Germany, which is further disrupted by revolution and social unrest
  • Break-up of Austro-Hungarian Empire; Austria becomes a republic
  • First experiments with shortwave radio
  • Max Planck receives the Nobel prize for his theory of quantum mechanics
  • First airmail service in United State
  • Execution of the Tsar and his family at Ekaterinberg
  • Worldwide epidemic of “Spanish flu”
  • Deaths of Egon Schiele, Gustave Klimt and Guillaume Apollinaire
  • Kasimir Malevich, White Square on White

1919

  • Versailles Peace Conference opens
  • Weimar Republic founded in Germany
  • Civil war in Russia
  • League of Nations formed
  • Observations of solar eclipse confirm Einstein’s theory of relativity
  • Bauhaus founded, Weimar, Germany
  • Death of Auguste Renoir

1920

  • Gandhi launches civil disobedience campaign in India
  • Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorshach invents “Rorshach” ink-blot test
  • Thompson submachine gun patented
  • Structure of the Milky Way demonstrated for the first time through the use of photography
  • 19th amendment gives American women the right to vote
  • Death of Amedeo Modigliani
  • Dada exhibition at the Winter Brasserie, Cologne

1921

  • Beginning of US stock market boom
  • End of Mexican revolution
  • Sacco-Vanzetti murder trial in the United States
  • First tuberculosis vaccine
  • Insulin discovered
  • Albert Einstein wins the Nobel prize in physics

1922

  • Soviet states unite to form USSR
  • Mussolini’s “March on Rome” leads to formation of Fascist government, Italy
  • Irish Free State officially proclaimed
  • James Joyce publishes Ulysses
  • Louis Armstrong’s first recording
  • Insulin first given to diabetics
  • Discovery of Vitamin E

1923

  • Hitler mounts coup d’etat in Munich, which fails
  • Greta Garbo’s film debut
  • Continuous hot strip-rolling of steel invented
  • Diptheria vaccine discovered
  • The American collector Albert C. Barnes buys 100 works from Chaim Soutine

1924

  • Death of Lenin
  • First Winter Olympics, Chamonix, Switzerland
  • George Gershwin composes Rhapsody in Blue
  • E.M. Forster publishes A Passage to India
  • Hitler writes Mein Kampf while in prison
  • First use of insecticides
  • 25 million radios in use in United States
  • First Surrealist manifesto published, Paris
  • Fernand Leger directs Mechanical Ballet

1925

  • Stalin ousts Trotsky from power
  • Sergei Eisenstein directs The Battleship Potemkin
  • F. Scott Fitzgerald writes The Great Gatsby
  • John Logie Baird transmits recognizable human features by television
  • First Leica camera
  • First solar eclipse in New York for 300 years
  • First Surrealist exhibition

1926

  • “Hitlerjugend” (Hitler Youth) founded, Germany
  • Fritz Lang directs Metropolis
  • First liquid-fuel rocket
  • Kodak produces first 16 mm photographic film
  • First exhibition of Max Ernst’s frottages in Paris

1927

  • German economy collapses
  • Charles Lindbergh flies solo non-stop from New York to Paris
  • Civil war breaks out in China
  • Russian scientist I.V. Pavlov publishes Conditioned Reflexes
  • 15 million Model T Fords produced by this date
  • Death of Juan Gris

1928

  • Chaing Kai-shek elected president of China
  • Amilia Earhart becomes first woman to fly across the Atlantic
  • D.H. Lawrence publishes Lady Chatterley’s Lover
  • First performance of Bertolt Brecht’s The Threepenny Opera, with music by Kurt Weill
  • Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin
  • George Eastman exhibits first color motion pictures
  • The Geiger counter is invented
  • Andre Breton publishes Surrealism and Painting
  • William van Alen, Chrysler Building, New York

1929

  • Stock Market crash in New York on October 2, precipitates world economic crises
  • “Talkies” replace silent films in popularity
  • Quartz-crystal clocks introduced
  • Inaugeration of MOMA, New York
  • Salvador Dali and Louis Bunuel direct the surrealist film fantasy Un chien andalou
  • Le Corbusier produces designs for “The City of Tomorrow”

1930

  • Nazi party wins 107 seats in German elections
  • Name of Constantinople, Turkey, changed to Istanbul
  • Human blood groups identified
  • Photo flashbulb comes into use
  • The planet Pluto is discovered
  • First tansatlantic airmail service
  • Grant Wood, American Gothic
  • R. Hood designs daily News Building, New York

1931

  • Collapse of Austrian Credit-Anstalt bankleads to financial crisis in Central Europe
  • First woman elected to US Senate
  • Cyclotron invented
  • Using x-rays, P.J.W. Debye investigates molecular structure
  • Abstraction-Creation Group founded
  • Inaugeration of the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York
  • Rockefeller Center begun, New York (-1940)
  • Empire State Building and Crysler Building completed, New York

1932

  • Nazi party wins 230 seats in German elections
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt elected president of United States
  • First Venice film festival
  • Discovery of the positron and neutron, and of Vitamin D
  • Alexander Calder invents the mobile

1933

  • Hitler appointed German Chancellor
  • Nazis build first concentration camps. Boycott of Jewish businesses begins in Germany
  • United States recognizes USSR
  • Electronic television developed (a system different from Baird’s)
  • Vitamin C synthesized
  • Hitler closes the Bauhaus

1934

  • Civil Works Emergency Relief Act passed in United States
  • Assassination of Kirov in Leningrad. Stalin begins purge of Communist Party
  • “Night of the Long Knives” in Germany: up to 1,000 of Hitler’s political opponents killed by the SS
  • Cargo refrigeration process devised
  • Death of Marie Curie
  • First public exhibition devoted to interior design, “The Chair,” held in the Netherlands
  • “The Machine,” exhibition at MOMA, New York

1935

  • Nazis repudiate Versailles Treaty. Compulsory military service reintroduced in Germany.
  • Italy invades Abyssinia
  • Penguin publishers in London launch the first “paperback” format books
  • Radar invented
  • The liner The Normandie breaks the speed record for an Atlantic crossing
  • Richter scale developed
  • Death of Kasimir Malevich

1936

  • Spanish Civil War begins. The dramatist and poet Frederico Garcia Lorca is one of the first victims, killed by the Francoist militia
  • Hitler and Mussolini proclaim Rome-Berlin Axis
  • Italy annexes Abyssinia
  • China declares war on Japan
  • Abdication of Edward VIII, in order to mary the American, Wallis Simpson
  • Boulder Damn on the Colorado River completed
  • Regular television broadcasts initiated for the first time in Germany
  • International Surrealist Exhibition, London
  • First art-therapy school opened in London under the aegis of Sigmund Freud
  • Salvador Dali, Soft Construction with Boiled Beans (Premonition of Civil War)
  • Frank Lloyd Wright, Falling Water, Bear Run, PA
  • The Crystal Palace in London, venue for the Great Exhibition of 1851, is destroyed by fire

1937

  • Japanese troops capture Peking and Nanking. Chiang Kai-shek unites with Communists under Mao Tse-tung
  • Bombing of Guernica, Spain
  • Frank Whittle builds first jet engine
  • Patent granted for the manufacture of “nylon”
  • Walt Disney directs the first full-length animated cartoon, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
  • Pablo Picasso, Guernica
  • Nazi “Degenerate Art” exhibition, Munich
  • Raoul Dufy’s Le Fee Electricite (300 x 60 ft, and the largest painting in the world) is exhibited at the International Exhibition, Paris
  • Plastic Art and Pure Art, essays by Piet Mondrian
  • The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco is opened to traffic
  • Walter Gropius is appointed to Harvard Chair of Architecture

1938

  • German civilians move into the Sudatenland, Czechoslovakia
  • British prime minister Neville Chamberlain meets Adolf Hitler at Berchtesgarten to resolve crisis
  • Germany annexes Austria
  • Ball-point pen invented
  • Atomic fission achieved
  • International Exhibition of Surrealism in Paris

1939

  • End of Spanish Civil War
  • Germany invades Poland and annexes Danzig
  • Britain and France declare war on Germany. World War II begins
  • DDT invented
  • Igor Sikorsky builds first helicopter
  • Death of Sigmund Freud
  • Death of the art dealer Ambroise Vollard
  • Max Ernst interned by the French authorities
  • Phillip Goodwin and Edward Stone remodel MOMA, New York

1940

  • British forces in Europe evacuated from Dunkirk
  • Italy declares war on France
  • German troops enter Paris. France concludes Armistice with Germany
  • Assassination of Trotsky in Mexico
  • Charlie Chaplin directs and stars in The Great Dictator.
  • First electron microscope developed
  • First successful helicopter flight
  • Death of Paul Klee
  • Discovery of prehistoric cave paintings at Lascaux, France
  • Varian Fry opens an office in Paris to arrange for the emigration of intellectuals and artists to the United States
  • Henry Moore becomes an official war-artist and begins his “Shelter” sketchbooks
  • Raymond Hood’s Rockefeller Center transforms the Manhattan skyline

1941

  • Germany invades USSR
  • Japan attacks Pearl Harbor and invades the Philippines
  • United States declares war on Germany and Italy
  • Orson Welles directs and stars in Citizen Kane
  • Dacron invented
  • Plutonium discovered. Intensive research into the A-bomb (the “Manhattan Project”) begins in the United States
  • The paintings of Expressionist Emile Nolde are banned by the Nazi party
  • The Jeu de Paume in Paris is requisitioned as an official exhibition space by the German forces of occupation

1942

  • Japanese troops capture Singapore
  • US Navy wins the battles of the Coral Sea and Medway
  • German advance across USSR halted at Stalingrad
  • Enrico Fermi splits the atom
  • First electronic computer developed in United States
  • Magnetic recording tape invented
  • First jetplane tested
  • “First Papers of Surrealism” exhibition, New York
  • Dubuffet resumes full-time painting
  • Jean Fautrier, in hiding, begins work on his Hostage series
  • Arshille Gorgy holds courses on camouflage painting at the Grand Central School of Art

1943

  • The German commander General Paulus surrenders to Russia at Stalingrad
  • German troops surrender in Tunisia
  • Allies invade Italy
  • Anti-Nazi revolt in the Warsaw Ghetto
  • Streptomycin discovered
  • Jean-Paul Sartre publishes Being and Nothingness
  • Jackson Pollock’s first solo show at the Art of This Century Gallery, New York
  • Death of Chaim Soutine
  • Alexander Calder retrospective at MOMA, New York

1944

  • Allied armies reach Rome
  • D-Day landings in Normandy
  • Red Army occupies Hungary
  • Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh declares itself independent of France
  • Success in synthesizing quinine leads to widespread availability of a treatment for maleria
  • Andre Breton meets Arshile Gorky
  • Jean Dubuffet’s first solo exhibition
  • Deaths of Piet Mondrian and Vassily Kandinsky, and of sculptor Aristide Maillol
  • Pablo Picasso paints Charnet House in response to the first pictures from the death camps of eastern Europe

1945

  • Death of Roosevelt. Harry S. Truman succeeds as US president
  • Hitler commits suicide
  • Berlin surrenders to Russians, May 2. War in Europe ends, May 8
  • United States drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan surrenders August 14.
  • Vitamin A synthesized
  • Sir Alexander Fleming shares Nobel prize for the discovery of penicillin
  • Mondrian retreospective at MOMA, New York
  • Double retrospective of Picasso and Matisse at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London
  • Jean Fautrier exhibits his paintings from the Hostage series
  • Walter Gropius founds the group “The Architect’s Collaborative

1946

  • First session of UN General Assembly (in London)
  • truman creates Atomic Energy Commission
  • First film festival held at Cannes includes Jean Cocteau’s Beauty and the Beast
  • Xerox process invented
  • Atomic bomb test at Bikini Atoll in Pacific Ocean
  • First electronic computer at the University of Pennsylvania
  • Pablo Picasso, La Joie de Vivre
  • Scandal of the Van Meegeren Vermeer forgeries id discovered
  • Andre Breton returns to France from the United States with a large collection of Native American masks and sculptures
  • Henry Moore wins sculpture prize at the Venice Biennale
  • Frank Lloyd Wright unveils the model of his revolutionary spiral design for the proposed Guggenheim Museum, New York

1947

  • India proclaims independence and divides into India and Pakistan
  • United Nations announces plan to partition Palestine
  • Albert Camus publishes The Plague
  • Premiere of Tennesse William’s A Streetcar Named Desire
  • US aircraft is the first to fly faster than sound
  • Holography invented
  • Pollock begins his “drip” paintings
  • Clyfford Dtill exhibits first color-field abstractions
  • Opening of the Musee Nationale d’Art Moderne in Paris
  • Death of Pierre Bonnard
  • Closure of the Art of the Century Gallery

1948

  • Gandhi assassinated
  • Communist coup d’etat in Czechoslovakia
  • Foundation of the State of Israel
  • Berlin airlift begins
  • Harry S. Truma elected president of United States for second term
  • Beginning of anti-Communist “witch hunts”
  • Long playing record invented
  • Transistor invented at Bell laboritories
  • Cobra Group founded
  • Arshile Gorky commits suicide
  • Georges Rouault publicly burns 315 unfinished paintings following a law-suit with the heirs of the dealer Ambroise Vollard
  • Mies van der Rohe, Lakeshore Drive apartments, Chicago (-1951)
  • Sigfried Giedion publishes Mechanization Takes Command

1949

  • Chiang Kai-shek retreats to Taiwan. The Chinese People’s Republic proclaimed under Chairman Mao
  • Vietnam and Indonesia become independent states
  • Berlin airlift ends
  • Simone de Beauvoir publishes The Second Sex
  • Cortisone discovered
  • USSR tests its first atomic bomb
  • First performance of John Cage’s Sonatas and Interludes
  • Death of Expressionist pioneer James Ensor
  • Lucio Fontana experiments with perforating the canvas of his paintings

1950

  • Communist Chinese army occupies Tibet
  • North Korea invades South Korea. UN troops land in South Korea
  • Miltown comes into use as a tranqualizer
  • Antihistamines introduced against colds and allergies
  • The “Irascibles” in New York demand to be recognized by the American avant-garde
  • Matisse awarded the grand prize at the Biennale in Venice
  • Franz Kline’s first exhibition

1951

  • United States signs peace treaty with Japan.
  • 22nd Amendment limits US presidents to two terms
  • Electric power first produced from atomic energy
  • First color-television broadcast in the United States
  • Massacre in Korea by Pablo Picasso
  • Andre Malraux publishes The Voices of Silence

1952

  • Dwight D. Eisenhower elected US president
  • The Iron Curtain divides Berlin
  • Elizabeth II succeeds George VI
  • First US hydrogen bomb exploded at Eniwetok Atoll in Pacific Ocean
  • Mass production of the IBM computer 701
  • “Unknown Political Prisoner” competition held by Institute of Contemporary Arts, London
  • Foundation of the Daur al Set Group in Barcelona
  • Publication of Un art autre by Michel Tapie

1953

  • Death of Stalin. Malenkov becomes Soviet Premier
  • Korean armistice signed
  • Edmund Hillary and Tenzing are first to climb Everest
  • Discovery of DNA by Crick, Watson, and Wilkins
  • Georges Braque’s ceiling painting in the Louvre
  • Scandal over Picasso’s Portrait of Stalin
  • Buckminster Fuller’s geodesic dome

1954

  • Dien Bien Phu taken by Vietnamese Communists, who occupy Hanoi
  • Algerian War of Independence begins (-1962)
  • US Supreme Court rules that segregation by color in public schools is illegal
  • Polio vaccine developed at the Pasteur Institute
  • Formation of Gutai Group, Japan
  • Death of Henri Matisse
  • Jean Arp, Max Ernst and Joan Miro win grand prizes at the Biennale in Venice

1955

  • Malenkov resigns as Soviet Premier and is succeeded by Bulganin
  • Bus boycott against racial segregation in Montgomery, Alabama
  • Death of Albert Einstein
  • Jasper Johns produces first Flag paintings
  • Yellow Manifesto by Victor Vasarely
  • Clement Greenberg defines color field painting
  • Inauguration of General Motors research center by Eero Saarinen

1956

  • Nasser elected President of Egypt, and seizes Suez Canal. Anglo-French forces invade. Israel invades Sinai. British and French troops withdraw
  • Uprising in Hungary against Soviet domination put down by USSR
  • Martin Luther King emerges as a leader against racial segregation
  • Transatlantic cable telephone service inaugurated
  • Oral vaccine developed against polio
  • Death of Jackson Pollock in a car accident
  • Cysp I by Nicholas Schoffer, the first autonomous cybernetic sculpture
  • Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson, Seagram Building, New York (-1958)
  • Frank Lloyd Wright, Guggenheim Museum, New York
  • Jorn Utzon, Sydney Opera House (-1973)
  • Eero Saarinen, TWA Building, Kennedy International Airport, New York (1962)

1957

  • Israeli forces withdraw from Sinai and hand over Gaza Strip to United Nations
  • Segregation crisis in Little Rock, Arkansas
  • Six European nations sign the Treaty of Rome, forming the EEc
  • USSR launches Sputnik I and II, the first satellites
  • Hans Hartung exhibits throughout Germany
  • Ad Reinhardt publishes Twelve Rules for a New Academy
  • Death of Constantin Brancusi

1958

  • Fidel Castro Begins war against the Batista government in Cuba
  • Nikita Khruschev succeeds Bulganin as Soviet Premier
  • Stereophonic recordings come on the market
  • Mark Rothko paints canvases for the Rothko Chapel, Houston
  • Group Zero formed in Dusseldorf
  • Expo 58 in Brussels: the return of metal architecture

1959

  • Fidel Castro seizes power in Cuba
  • Charles de Gaulle becomes president of the Fifth Republic in France
  • The Russian rocket Lunik reaches the moon
  • Launching of the first American nuclear-powered merchant vessel
  • First “Happenings” in New York
  • Louis I. Kahn, Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA (-1965)

1960

  • Massacre by white troops of black school children at Sharpeville, South Aferica
  • Formation of Organization of Oil Exporting Countries (OPEC)
  • First weather satellite launched by United States
  • First laser constructed in California
  • Andy Warhol, first comic strip painting (Dick Tracey)
  • Pierre Restany publishes his New Realist Manifesto
  • Performance in Paris of Yves Klein’s Anthropometries
  • Claes Oldengurg “Happening”: Snapshots from the City
  • Foundation of Brasilia as the new capital of Brazil, with buildings by Oscar Niemeyer

1961

  • US Bay of Pigs, attempted invasion of Cuba fails
  • Berlin Wall constructed
  • Joseph Heller publishes Catch 22
  • Gunter Grass publishes The Tin Drum
  • Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin orbits Earth in a Satellite
  • The contraceptive pill becomes available on prescription
  • “Art of Assemblage” exhibition at MOMA, New York
  • Joseph Beuys begins teaching at the Dusseldorf Kunstakademie
  • Roy Lichtenstein creates his first works based on comic strips
  • The term “concept art” is coined by Henry Flynt
  • Nicolas Schoffer erects a “cybernetic and echoing” tower at the International Exhibition in Liege

1962

  • Cuban missile crisis
  • First black student admitted to the University of Mississippi, protected by 3,000 US troops
  • Execution of Adolf Eichmann in Israel
  • The anti-nausea drug “Thalidomide” is identified as a cause of major birth defects
  • “Nuevia Presencia” group (opposed to Mexican Muralism) founded in Mexico
  • Warhol holds his first solo exhibition at the Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles
  • BBC television screens the film “Pop Goes the Easel”
  • Pop Art covered by Time, Life, and Newsweek
  • “Fluxus” group formed
  • Death of Yves Klein
  • Philip Johnson begins work on the New York State Theater at the Lincoln Center, New York

1963

  • Britain’s application to join the Common Market rejected
  • President John F. Kennedy assassinated
  • Nelson Mandela begins a sentence of Life imprisonment in South Africa
  • First use of an artificial heart to take over the circulation of the blood during heart surgery
  • Color version of polaroid Land Camera goes on sale
  • Death of Piero Manzoni
  • Dan Flavin produces the first of his sculptures using fluorescent light
  • Leben mit Pop exhibition held in Dusseldorf, germany
  • George Segal, Cinema
  • First solo exhibition for R.B. Kitaj at the Marlborough Gallery, London

1964

  • Escalation of US military involvement in Vietnam
  • Martin Luther King awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
  • Greek/Cypriot War
  • Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) founded
  • Mary Quant invents the mini-skirt
  • First close-up photos of the moon’s surface
  • China explodes its first A-bomb
  • “Post-Painterly Abstraction” exhibition at the Los Angeles County Museum. Edward Kienholz’s Backseat Dodge ’38 is met with official outrage when exhibited at the same venue
  • “Amerikan Pop-Konst,” Moderna Museet, Stockholm
  • “The Shaped Canvas,” Guggenheim Museum, New York
  • Carolee Schneemann performs Meat Joy
  • “Architecture without Architects,” exhibition at MOMA, New York
  • Kenzo Tange designs pavilions and the Olympic area for the Olympic Games in Tokyo

1965

  • Malcolm X, Black Muslim leader, assassinated. Race riots in the Watts district, New York
  • National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) founded in the United States
  • White government of Rhodesia declares independence from the Commonwealth
  • Death of Albert Schweitzer
  • Noam Chomsky publishes Aspects of the Theory of Syntax
  • Andy Warhol’s first retrospective is held at the University of Pennsylvania
  • Salvador Dali, The Perpignan Railway Station
  • “New Generation” exhibition at the Whitechapel Gallery, London
  • Death of Le Corbusier
  • Founding of the International Group of Prospective Architecture

1966

  • Cultural Revolution begins in China (-1968)
  • Strasbourg students and the Situationist Internationale group publish “On Student Poverty”
  • Truman Capote publishes In Cold Blood
  • Premiere of Blow-Up, directed by Michelangelo Antonioni
  • First implant of an artificial heart
  • “Soft” landings on the moon by both USSR and US spacecraft
  • “Primary Structures” exhibition, Jewish Museum, New York
  • “Systematic Abstraction,” Guggenheim Museum, New York
  • First “Hairy Who” group show, Hyde Park Center, Chicago
  • Opening of the new Whitney Museum of American Art, designed by Marcel Breuer

1967

  • Six day War between Israel and the Arab nations
  • Che Guevara Killed in Bolivia
  • 50.000 pepole demonstrate against the Vietnam War at the Lincoln memorial, Washington D.C.
  • Abortion and homosexuality decriminalized in Great Britain
  • First Heart transplant operation performed by Dr Cristiaan Barnard in South Africa
  • Death of Robert Oppenheim, the inventor of the A-bomb
  • Synthetic DNA produced for the first time
  • Birth of “Arte Povera” marked by the exhibition at the Galleria la Bertesca, Genoa
  • “Funk” exhibition, University of California, Berkeley
  • Peter Blake creates the cover for The Beatles’s “Sergeant Pepper” album
  • Death of Rene Magritte
  • Robert Motherwell completes his Elegy to the Spanish Republic
  • International Expo ’67 showcases pavilions by Buckminster Fuller (US), Frei Otto and Rolf Gutbrod (Germany), and Habitat ’67 by Moishe Safdie

1968

  • Martin Luther King assassinated
  • Student rioting in Paris
  • Liberalization in Czechoslavakia leads to Soviet invasion
  • Richard Nixon elected president of the United States
  • Stanley Kubrick directs 2001: A Space Odyssey
  • BMW unveil its 2002 saloon
  • James D. Watson publishes The Double Helix
  • “Earthworks” exhibition, Dwan Gallery, New York
  • “Art and the Machine” exhibition at MOMA, New York
  • Christo wraps the Kunsthalle, Berne
  • Death of Marcel Duchamp

1969

  • First US troops withdrawn from Vietnam
  • British troops sent to Belfast to quell rioting
  • Woodstock music festival, New York state
  • Riots after the police raid on the Stonewall Inn, New York, precipitate the founding of the Gay Rights movement
  • Charles Manson murders in California
  • Concorde, the Anglo-French supersonic passenger aircraft, makes its first test flight
  • US government bans the use of DDT as insecticide
  • Neil Armstrong becomes the first man to walk on the moon
  • Robert Smithson begins work on Spiral Jetty at the Great Salt Lake, Utah
  • First issue of Art & Language published
  • Theft of the Penrose collection, including major works by Pablo Picasso and Giorgio de Chirico, in London
  • Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill, the John Hancock Center, Chicago

1970

  • Nigerian civil war ends
  • US National Guardsmen shoot dead four student anti-war demonstrators at Kent State University, Ohio
  • Salvador Allende elected president of Chile
  • Riots in Gdansk against Communist government of Poland
  • Boeing 747 airline begins regular flights
  • IBM develops “floppy disc” to store computer data
  • Deaths of mark Rothko and Barnett Newman
  • “Conceptual Art, Arte Povera, Land Art,” exhibitionat the Galleria Civica de Arte Moderna, Turin
  • Judy Chicago organizes first feminist art course at California State College, Fresno

1971

  • Women are granted the right to vote in Switzerland
  • War breaks out between Pakistan and India. Republic of Bangladesh established
  • 200,000 people demonstrate in Washington D.C. against the Vietnam War
  • Microprocessor introduced
  • US space probe Marine IX becomes first man-made object to orbit another planet (Mars)
  • Francis Bacon retrospective in Paris
  • “Contemporary Black American Artists,” exhibition at the Whitney Museum, New York
  • Exhibition on the metamorphosis of the object in Brussels
  • Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers begin work on the Pompidou Center, Paris (-1977)

1972

  • Richard Nixon visits China
  • Eleven members of the Israeli team are killed by Arab terrorists at the Munich Olympics
  • Five arrested after break-in at Democratic Party headquarters in Watergate apartment complex, Washington D.C.
  • First home video-casette recorders introduced
  • CAT scans introduced to provide cross-section x-rays of human brain
  • Soulages retrospective in the United States
  • “The New Art,” exhibition at the Hayward Gallery, London
  • First still lifes produced by Claes Oldenburg
  • Alvar Aalto, Finlandia Hall, Helsinki
  • Louis I. Kahn completes Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, TX

1973

  • Britain joins EEC
  • President Allende of Chile overthrown by General Pinochet
  • Yom Kippur War between Israel, Egypt and Syria
  • Ceasefire in Vietnam
  • Barcodes first used in supermarkets
  • First live birth (of a calf) from frozen embryo
  • Konrad Lorenz is awarded the Nobel prize for medicine
  • Death of Picasso
  • “Photo Realism,” exhibition at the Serpentine Gallery, London
  • Works by the New York School fetch record auction prices
  • First color photocopier marketed (Japan)
  • John Portman and Associates, Hyatt-Regency Hotel, San Francisco

1974

  • Left-wing revolution in Portugal resulting in a bloodless coup
  • President Makarios of Greece overthrown. Turkey invades Cyprus
  • Nixon resigns and Gerald Ford becomes US President
  • Patricia Hearst is kidnapped
  • Alexander Solzhenitsyn is exiled from the USSR
  • Death of Charles A. Lindbergh
  • Russian space probe lands on Mars
  • Dali Museum opens in Figueras, Spain
  • Joseph Beuys performs Coyote in New York
  • I.M. Pei, East Building of the National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. (-1978)

1975

  • Civil War begins in Lebanon
  • Khmer Rouge capture Phnom Penh, capital of Cambodia
  • Saigon falls to the North Vietnamese
  • Death of General Franco
  • First warning of possible damage to ozone layer due to aerosols
  • First personal computer (PC) marketed
  • Muralism makes a comeback in the United States
  • Roy Lichtenstein retrospective takes place in Paris
  • Spain opens itself up to contemporary art

1976

  • MaoTse-Tung dies (China)
  • Jimmy Carter is elected President of United States
  • Olympic Games held in Montreal
  • Israeli raid on Entebbe
  • Concorde supersonic airliner begins regular passenger services across Atlantic
  • US space probe Viking I lands on Mars
  • Christo builds The Running Fence in California
  • “Women artists: 1550-1950,” exhibition at Los Angeles County Museum
  • Death of Max Ernst
  • Carl Andre’s Bricks whip up controversy in London

1977

  • First democratic elections in Spain since 1936
  • South African black leader Steve Biko dies in police custody
  • Egyptian president Anwar Sadat visits Isreal
  • First victims of AIDS reported in New York
  • Apple II microcomputer marketed in the United States
  • First staffed flight of space shuttle Enterprise
  • Opening of Pompidou Center, Paris
  • “Unofficial Art from the Soviet Union,” exhibition at the Institute of Contemporary Arts, London
  • Heresies magazine published in New York

1978

  • Karol Wojtyla, Archbishop of Cracow, elected pope as John Paul II
  • Mass suicide of over 900 people in Jonestown, Guyana
  • Camp David peace treaty – Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin share the Nobel Peace Prize
  • First autofocus camera marketed
  • First test-tube baby born (england)
  • Two Soviet astronauts orbit the earth for 140 days
  • “Bad Painting,” exhibition at New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York
  • Deaths of Giorgio de Chirico and critic Harold Rosenberg
  • “Paris-Berlin,” exhibition at the Pompidou Center, Paris
  • Philip Johnson and John Burgee, AT&T Headquarters, New York

1979

  • Fall of Shah in Iran, which becomes Islamic Republic under Ayatollah Khomeini
  • Margaret Thatcher becomes Britain’s first woman prime minister
  • Iranian students seize US embassy in Teheran. President Carter imposes embargo on Iranian oil
  • USSR invade Afghanistan
  • Television broadcasting via satellite launched
  • US Surgeon-General publishes a report confirming that smoking causes cancer and is linked to other diseases
  • Personal stereo introduced and compact disc developed
  • Joseph Beuys retrospective at the Guggenheim Museum, New Youk
  • Judy Chicago, The Dinner Party
  • Germaine Greer publishes The Obstacle Race: Fortunes of Women Painters and Their Work

1980

  • Death of President Tito of Yugoslavia
  • Poland allows trade unions. Lech Walesa forms “Solidarity”
  • Iraq invades Iran
  • Ronald Reagan becomes president of United States
  • US apace probe Voyager I flies past Saturn
  • Fax machines enter widespread use
  • George Baselitz and Anselm Kiefer sensations at the Venice Biennale
  • Robert Mapplethorpe, Black Male series exhibited at Galerie Jurka, Amsterdam
  • “Picasso’s Picassos,” exhibition shown in New York
  • Richard Meier, High Museum of Art, Atlanta Georgia (-1983)

1981

  • Francois Mitterand elected president of France
  • President Sadat of Egypt assassinated
  • Sandra Day O’Connor is the first woman to be appointed to the US Supreme Court
  • US Center for Disease Control recognizes AIDS as a communicable disease
  • “A New Spirit in Painting,” exhibition at the Royal Academy of Arts, London
  • The philosopher Roland Barthes’s Camera Lucida is published
  • International recognition of the new German art
  • Maya Ling Lin, Vietnam War Memorial, The Mall, Washington D.C. (-1984)

1982

  • Argentine troops invade Falkland Islands. British task force recaptures islands
  • PLO forced to leave West Beirut. Christian massacre, with Israeli connivance of Palestinians in Beirut refugee camps
  • Compact-sic players go on sale
  • First permanent artificial-heart operation
  • “Transavantguardia,” exhibition at the Galleria Civica, Modena, Italy
  • “Zeitgeist,” exhibition at the Martin Gropius-Bau, Berlin
  • Video Art at the Whitney Museum, New York
  • New French painters in New York
  • Michael Graves, Humana Building, Louisville, Kentucky

1983

  • US marines invade Grenada
  • 242 US troops killed by a suicide bomber in Beirut
  • Chicago elects its first black mayor
  • Soviets shoot down Korean commercial airliner, killing all 269 passengers
  • First successful transfer of human embryo
  • HIV virus isolated
  • First US woman travels in space
  • Julian Schnabel takes the New York art world by storm
  • “The New Art,” exhibition at the Tate Gallery, London
  • Italo Mussa publishes La Pittura Colta, Rome
  • Balthus retrospective at the Pompidou Center, Paris
  • I.M. Pei, Pyramid, Musee di Louvre, Paris (-1988)

1984

  • Indian troops storm Sikh Golden Temple at Amritsar, Punjab
  • Geraldine Ferraro nominated as US Democratic candidate for vice president
  • Indian prime minister Indira Gandhi assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards
  • Chemical plant leak in Bhopal, India, kills 2,500 and injures 200,000
  • Discovery of “genetic fingerprinting” in DNA
  • Top quark molecule discovered in Geneva
  • “Content: A Contemporary Focus, 1974-1984,” exhibition at the Hirshhorn Museum, Washington D.C.
  • “Primitivism in 20th Century Art,” exhibition at MOMA, New York

1985

  • Mikhail Gorbachev named First Secretary of Russian Communist Party
  • Greenpeace ship Rainbow Warrior sunk in Auckland harbor by French secret agents
  • Major earthquake in Mexico City
  • African famine continues
  • Hole discovered in ozone layer of Antartica
  • The wreck of the Titanic is detected by underwater robots
  • The Saatchi Gallery, devoted to contemporary art, opens in London
  • Christo wraps the Pont-Neuf bridge, Paris, in a huge fireproof canvas
  • Deaths of Marc Chagall and Jean Dubuffet
  • Peter Eisenman, Wexner Center for Visual Arts, Columbus, Ohio (-1989)

1986

  • US space shuttle Challenger explodes shortly after take-off. Space flight program suspended
  • Revolution in Philippines, President Marcos flees
  • Iran-Contra scandal
  • American bombing raid on Libya
  • First laptop computer introduced
  • First heart, lung and liver transplant
  • Major accident at Chernobyl nuclear power station, Kiev
  • Death of Joseph Beuys
  • Rediscovery of Futurism in Venice
  • Ludwig Museum is opened in Cologne
  • Arata Isozaki”s Museum of Contemporary Art opens in Ls Angeles

1987

  • Gorbachev offers to dismantle all short and medium-range missiles in USSR, and introduces glasnost and perestroika
  • Stock markets crash on Black Wednesday
  • Iran-Contra hearings take place in Washington D.C.
  • Construction of Channel Tunnel between France and Britain begins
  • Compact video disc introduced
  • A conference in Montreal produces a protocol on CFC emissions
  • Deaths of Andy Warhol and Andre Masson
  • Marc Chagall exhibition in Moscow
  • Jean Tinguely retrospective in Venice
  • “New York Art Now,” exhibition at the Saatchi Gallery, London
  • “Art of the Fantastic: Latin America, 1920-1987,” exhibition at the Indianapolis Museum of Art
  • Charles Jencks publishes Post-Modernism: Neo-Classicism in Art and Architecture

1988

  • Soviet troops begin withdrawel from Afghanistan
  • George Bush elected president of United States
  • Benazir Bhutto becomes prime minister of Pakistan
  • Pan Am Boeing 747 destroyed by terrorist bomb over Lockerbie in Scotland
  • Salman Rushdie’s Satanic Verses causes worldwide controversy
  • Transatlantic fiber-optic cable laid
  • Developments in DNA fingerprinting revolutionize forensics and paternity testing
  • Emergence of Computer Art
  • Death of Louise Nevelson
  • Three paintings by Vincent Van Gogh are stolen from the Kroller-Muller Museum in Otterlo, the Netherlands
  • “American/German Art of the Late 80s,” exhibition held in Dusseldorf and Boston
  • Kish Kurokawa, Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art, Hiroshima, Japan

1989

  • Oil tanker Exxon Valdez spills 11 milion gallons of oil in Prince William Sound, Alaska
  • Massacre of pro-democracy demonstrators in Tiananmen Square, Bejing
  • Bush and Gorbachev declare end of Cold War
  • The Berlin Wall is demolished and Germany unified
  • San Francisco Earthquake
  • Stephen hawking publishes A Brief History of Time
  • US space-probe Magellan launched, to map surface of Venus
  • Cordless telephones become widely available
  • “Black Art: Ancestral Legacy: The African Impulse in African American Art,” exhibition at the Dallas Museum of Art
  • “Magiciens de la Terre,” exhibition at the Pompidou Center, Paris
  • Linda Nochlin publishes Women, Art, and Power and Other Essays

1990

  • Boris Yeltsin elected president of Russia
  • Iraqi troops invade Kuwait
  • Nelson Mandela released from prison in South Africa
  • Global warming threat recognized
  • Ilya Kabakov, He Lost His Mind, Undressed, Ran Away Naked (environmental work, Ronald Feldman Fine Arts, New York)
  • “Between Spring and Summer: Soviet conceptual art in the era of late communism,” exhibition at the Institute of Contemporary Arts, Boston
  • Lucy Lippard publishes Mixed Blessings: New Art in a Multi-Cultural America
  • Santiago Calatrava, TGV Railway Stateion, Lyon-Satolas, France

1991

  • Civil War breaks out in Yugoslavia
  • Gulf offensive launched by NATO against Iraq
  • Rajiv Ghandi assassinated
  • Final disestablishment of the USSR
  • First planet beyond the Sun’s solar system discovered
  • Damien Hirst, The Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living
  • “Cara: Chicano Art, resistance and Affirmation,” exhibition at the Wright Art Gallery, University of California, Los Angeles
  • “Metropolis,” exhibition at the Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin
  • Museum of Contemporary Arts opens in Frakfurt, Germany

1992

  • Bill Clinton elected US president
  • Race riots in Los Angeles
  • Collapse of Russian-backed Communist regime in Afghanistan
  • “Cosmic ripples” detected in space
  • Earth Summit environmental conference in Rio de Janeiro
  • Yu Youhan, Mao and Blonde Girl Analyzed
  • Bill Viola, To Pray without Ceasing (video installation)
  • Andres Serrano, The Morgue series of photographs
  • SoHo Guggenheim Museum opened in New York
  • “Helter Skelter: LA Art in the 90s,” exhibition held in Los Angeles

1993

  • United States initiates missle attacks on Iraq
  • Benazir Bhutto re-elected prime minister of Pakistan
  • PLO-Israeli peace agreement announced
  • 130 nations sign peace treaty banning chemical weapons
  • Concept of “information super-highway” promoted
  • Internet system links five million users
  • Rachel Whiteread, Untitled (House)
  • “Aratjara: Art of the First Australians,” exhibition at Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-westfalen, Dusseldorf, Germany
  • “China Avant-Garde,” exhibition at Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin, and Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, England

1994

  • First non-racial eklections in South Africa
  • Massacre of Tutsi people by Rwandan Hutus
  • Russian military offensive against the break-away republic of Chechnya
  • Number of HIV cases worldwide estimated to have reached 17 million
  • “Some Went Mad, Some Ran Away,” exhibition at the Serpentine Gallery, London
  • “Japanese Art after 1945: Scream against the Sky,” exhibition at the Guggenheim Museum, New York
  • Death of the influential art critic, Clement Greenberg

1995

  • Bombing of Federal office building in Oklahoma City
  • Yitzhak Rabin, prime minister of Israel, assassinated
  • Dayton Peace Agreement halts war in Boznia
  • US space shuttle Atlantis docks with Russian Mir space station
  • “Africa: Art of a Continent,” exhibition at the Royal Academy of Art, London
  • Damien Hirst wins the Turner Prize
  • Joel-Peter Witkin, exhibition of photographs at the Guggenheim Museum, New York
  • Mario Botta, Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco

 

 

 

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